Post- Imperial (1859-1915)
Post- Imperial (1859-1915)
Fabre Geffrard. Nissage Saget (Provisional). Sylvain Salnave. Council of Secretaries of State. Michel Domingue. Pierre Theoma Boirond-Canal. Joseph Lamothe(Provisional). Lysius Salomon. Boisron-Canal (Provisional). Francois Denys Legitime. Monpoint Jeune (Provisional). Florvil Hypolite. Tiresiaste Simon Sam. Boisrond-Canal (Provisional). Pierre Nord Alexis. Francois C. Antoine Simon. Cincinnatus Leconte. Tancrede Auguste. Michel Oreste. Oreste Zamor. Joseph Davilmar Theodore. Vilbrun Guilllaume Sam.
Fabre-Nicholas Geffrard (1806-1878) was a general in the Haitian army and President of Haiti from 1859 until his deposition in 1867. After collaborating in a coup to remove Faustin Soulouque from power in order to return Haiti back to social and political control of the colored elite, Geffrard was made president in 1859. To placate the peasants he renewed the practice of selling state-owned lands and ended a schism with the Roman Catholic Church which then took on an important role in improving education. After surviving several rebellions, he was overthrown by Major Sylvain Salnave in 1867.
His first act as president was to cut the army in half from 30,000 to 15,000. He also formed his own presidential guards called the Les Tirailleurs de la Guarde, who were trained under him personally. In June 1859, Geffrard founded the National Law School and reinstituted the Medical School that Boyer began. His ministers of Education, Jean Simon Elie-Dubois and Francois Elie-Dubois modernized and established many lycea in Jacmel, Jeremie, Saint-Marc, and Gonaives. On October 10, 1863, he reintroduced the colonial law that required the roads to be built and maintained. He also followed Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Alexandre Pétion and Boyer policy of recruiting African Americans to settle in Haiti. In May 1861, a group of African Americans, led by James Theodore Holly, settled east of Croix-des-Boiquets. However, by 1862, Geffrard began to examine the constitution and eliminated the legislature to his own benefit. He first gave himself a raise, 2 plantations, and paid his personal luxury with hospital funds and army funds.
Geffrard was a Catholic, which made him renounce any form of the Voodoo faith. He gave orders to demolish altars, drums, and any other instruments used in ceremonies. In 1863, a six-year-old girl was killed by Voodoo practitioners in a gruesome fashion. Geffrard ordered a deep investigation and a public execution was held. This case became the famous Affaire de Bizoton, which was featured in a British minister's best-selling book.
In 1859, Geffrard made the first attempt in negotiating with the Dominican Republic under the regime of Pedro Santana. Unfortunately, in March 1861, Pedro gave his country back to Queen Isabella II of Spain, thus making Haitian officials nervous of a European power back on their borders. In May of that year, guerilla war broke out in Santo Domingo against Spain. Geffrard sent his personal guards and men to help out the rebels against Spanish troops but in July 1861, Spain gave Haiti an ultimatum for participating and supporting the Dominican rebels. In the end, Geffrard agreed to surrender to Spain requests and dropped all intervention within Spain territory in the east. This episode left many Haitians humiliated and angry at Geffrard because he backed down to a European nation while Faustin Soulouque would have never accepted it.
Geffrard, like all Haitians, supported the abolitionist movement in the U.S., holding a state funeral for John Brown. With the secession of the slave-owning Southern states in the American Civil War, Haiti was granted diplomatic recognition by the United States. During the war, Spanish and British colonial officials in Cuba, the Bahamas and neighboring Santo Domingo openly sided with the Confederacy, harboring Confederate commerce-raiders and blockade-runners. By contrast, Haiti was the one part of the Caribbean (with the exception of Danish St. Thomas) where the U.S. Navy was welcome, and Cap-Haïtien served as the headquarters of its West Indian Squadron, which helped maintain the Union blockade in the strategically invaluable Florida Straights. Haiti also took advantage of the war to become a major exporter of cotton to the United States, and Geffrard imported gins and technicians to increase production. However, the crops failed in 1865 and 1866, and by that point the U.S. was again exporting cotton.
By the 8th month of Geffrard's presidency, Faustin Soulouque's minister of interior, Guerrier Prophete, began to lay out his plan to overthrow Geffrard. Fortunately for Geffrard, his plan was picked up by Geffrard's guards and Prophete was exiled. On September 1859, Geffrard's daughter Madame Cora Manneville-Blanfort was assassinated by Timoleon Vanon. In 1861, General Legros tried to take over the weaponry storage but was detained by government forces. In 1862, Etienne Salomon tried to rally the rural community to revolt against Geffrard but was instead shot and killed. In 1863, Aime Legros gathered troops to overthrow Geffrard but his troops betrayed him and was shot. In 1864, the elite community in Port-au-Prince tried to take over the weaponry storage but was later prosecuted and sentenced to jail. In 1867, Geffrard's bodyguards, Tirailleurs, betrayed him and tried to assassinate him inside the national palace.
In 1865, Major Sylvain Salnave began his takeover of the North and Artibonite part of Haiti. By May 15, both Geffrard and his government troops clashed with Salnave Northern troops. After using the Royal Navy for gunboat diplomacy with Salnave, Geffrard regime was in ruins, especially financially. He reopened old wounds between North, West, and South Haitians and brought foreigners into domestic affairs. In 1866, a huge fire engulfed hundreds of houses and business. In March 1867, Geffrard and his family disguised themselves and fled to Jamaica, where he died in Kingston in 1878.
Nissage Saget (1810-1880) succeeded Sylvain Salnave as President of Haiti in 1869. He was the first Haitian president to serve out his term of office (1869-1874) and retire voluntarily, although his retirement led to a renewal of the political turmoil between blacks and the country's mulatto elites. He died in 1880.
Sylvain Salnave (1827 - 1870) was a Haïtian general. He was the President of Haïti from 1867 to 1869. In 1867 he was elected president after he led the overthrow of President Fabre Geffrard. During his term there were constant civil wars between the various factions.
Michel Domingue was the leader of Haiti from 14 June 1874–15 April 1876. Domingue transferred power to Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal 23 April 1876.
Président Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal.
Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal, commença une carrière militaire. Durant la présidence de Fabre Geffrard, il a été un officier de 1858 à 1867. Il a ensuite pris sa retraite du service militaire et est devenu agriculteur.
Sa carrière politique a débuté en 1870 quand il fut élu sénateur à Port-au-Prince. Il est de nouveau réélu jusqu'en 1875. Après les émeutes de Mai 1875, il partit en exil à Kingston en Jamaïque pour quelques semaines.
A son retour, il fut nommé, par le président Michel Domingue, commandant de l'armée dans le département de l'Ouest.
Le 23 Avril 1876, il remplaça Michel Domingue comme premier président du gouvernement provisoire, avant de devenir finalement le 17 Juillet 1876, président d'Haïti. La Constitution de 1867 lui donne un mandat de quatre ans.
Alors que Boisrond-Canal préside, des tensions étrangères et en politique intérieure apparaissent dans le paysage politique, notamment en raison des divergences de vues entre les partis nationalistes et libéraux au Parlement. Après un débat houleux à la Chambre des Députés le 30 Juin 1879 qui furent suivis par des émeutes à Port-au-Prince, dans lesquelles le chef du Parti libéral, Jean-Pierre Boyer-Bazelais, a joué un rôle important, il était en outre le fondateur et le chef du Parti libéral.
Bien que le gouvernement ait réussi à rétablir la loi et l'ordre, Boisrond-Canal, démissionna le 17 Juillet 1879 comme président, n'arrivant pas à une médiation entre les partis libéral et national. Le successeur à la présidence fut Lysius Salomon.
Après sa démission, il parti de nouveau en exil en Jamaïque.
Après son retour d'exil, et la démission de son successeur, Salomon, le 10 Août 1888, il est renommé Président par intérim d'Haïti. Il a intronisé le 16 Octobre 1888 François Denys Légitime comme nouveau président.
Boisrond-Canal a été l'un des politiciens les plus influents en Haïti de son temps et avait même en dehors de son propre règne une influence notable sur la politique d'Haïti.
A côté de lui, son frère cadet, Louis-Auguste Boisrond Canal, et a été une personnalité politique active en 1908 en tant que membre de la Commission pour l'ordre public.
His daughter Ida, known as Ida Faubert, was a French poet.
Salomon was born in 1815 in Les Cayes. His family was an influential part of the tiny black elite of the south. Well-known and educated, his family often clashed with the relatively more powerful mulatto elite of south. During Charles Riviere-Hérard's regime, the Salomons were wanted for arrests after a heated battle with the mulattoes and exiled to Neyba. As Faustin Soulouque came into power, Louis returned along with other powerful black leaders to serve the new government. Louis became the minister of finance under Faustin and began to monopolize export transactions in coffee and cotton, run foreign imports through state monopolies, and levies on capital. As a result, smuggling and piracy exploded during Soulouqure reign. After the fall of Soulouque, Louis was exiled to Paris and London where he read and traveled widely.
On August 18, 1879, Louis returned to Haiti and became president with huge support from the people. His plan as president was to restart public education, fix Haiti's financial woes, restore agriculture productivity, improve the army, and to fix the public administration. Within 4 months, he established the National Bank, and by 1880 he resumed payments to France. The 1880s saw a huge amount of effort by the Salomon administration to bring modernization to Haiti. He adhered to the International Postal Union and issued its first postage stamp. In October, he granted a British cable company the right to connect Port-au-Prince and Kingston, and by 1887 he negotiated to link Môle Saint-Nicolas to Cuba. He restructured the medical school, imported teachers from France for the Lycees, and more. The armed forces were reorganized to 16,000 and assigned to 34 infantry regiments and 4 artillery regiments. Also, Salomon reorganized the ranking distribution in the Haitian army, which only carried private and general.
In May 1883, Salomon offered the United States the island of Tortuga, in return for U.S. protection. In November, Salomon offered Môle Saint-Nicolas or Tortuga to the U.S., but both offers were not accepted.
Conspiracies and Rebellion
Within the 4 months of Salomon’s presidency, Haitian refugees from Kingston were in contact with the elite community in Port-au-Prince in order for a coup. When Salomon went to tour the south, general Nicolas headed to St. Marc to plan another coup but was met with government soldiers. In 1883, exiled Haitian rebels from Jamaica and Cuba, including Jean-Pierre Boyer-Bazlais and Desormes, reached Haitian shores to start another coup against Salomon.
While Salomon fixed some of Haiti's problems, he also was draining resources to pay Haiti's debt to France. During 1881-1882, an outbreak of smallpox spread throughout the country and consumed most of the finances in those years. In April 1883, the infamous Cacos from the north rebelled against Salomon and his administration but were crushed by government troops mixed with former Piquets.
From 1884 to the end of his presidency, Salomon faced numerous rebellions from the Cacos. By May, Cacos from the south rebelled in Jérémie, and in July Jacmel rebelled. In October, a huge outburst emerged between Salomon's government forces, the exiled rebels from Cuba and Jamaica, and Cacos from different cities from the south and north. Flames engulfed government records and buildings, and mass murder were being dealt to the elite class, foreigners, and merchants. This conflict was known as the "Bloody Week".
Following the rebellion, inflation grew, and a scandal called "Affaire des Mandays" became known involving the national bank, a French director, a British chief accountant and the Haitian government.
Resignation and death
In 1886, Salomon was "re-elected" for a 7-year term because of his rewriting of the constitution. In 1887, Port-au-Prince rebelled because of lack of individual freedom and the tyrannical system of the republic. Government officials withdrew support from Salomon ,and by 1888 Le Cap rebelled in the north. With so much stress and too much to handle, Salomon left Haiti and returned to Paris, where he died at number 3 Avenue Victor-Hugo on October 19, 1888.
Il débuta sa carrière politique qui le conduisit tout d'abord au Sénat.
En juillet 1779, il participa au Comité Central de Salut Public, présidé par Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal. La tâche principale du gouvernement provisoire était de préparer la future élection présidentielle.
Le 18 août 1888, il est élevé au grade de général.
Le 16 octobre 1888, il est nommé chef du pouvoir exécutif, puis président de la République par intérim le 16 décembre 1888.
Il est renversé le 22 août 1889 et s'exile avec sa famille.
Reveu d'exil, il est nommé, le 27 juin 1918, membre du Conseil d'État.
En 1923, il est membre fondateur de la Société d'Histoire et de Géopgraphie d'Haïti.
Monpoint Jeune fut un jeune diplomé quand il commença une carrière militaire, au cours de laquelle il s'éleva jusqu'au rang de général.
Le 17 Octobre 1889 il fut remplacé par le ministre de l'Agriculture, Florvil Hyppolite.
Louis Mondestin Florvil Hyppolite (1828 – 1896) was the President of Haiti from 17 October 1889 to 31 March 1896. He was a career soldier, a general. He was installed as president by a constitutional council. He died of a heart attack while in office.
Tirésias Augustin Simon Sam (1835 – 1916) was the President of Haiti from 31 March 1896 to 12 May 1902. He resigned the presidency just before completing his six-year term. A likeness of Simon Sam has been featured on several Haitian postage stamps. His son, Jean Vilbrun Guillaume Sam, also became President of Haiti.
His mistress, Victoire Jean-Baptiste, is said to have had some influence over him.
Pierre Nord Alexis (1820 – May 1, 1910) was President of Haiti from December 21, 1902 to December 2, 1908. He was son of Nord Alexis, a high-ranking official in the regime of Henry Christophe, and Blézine Georges, Christophe's illegitimate daughter. Alexis joined the army in the 1830s, serving President Jean-Louis Pierrot, his father-in-law, as an aide-de-camp. In the ensuing years, he had a tumultuous career: he was exiled in 1874, but returned to Haiti a few years later by President Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal. During the presidency of Lysius Salomon, he was a vocal leader of the opposition, enduring several jail sentences before Salomon was finally ousted in a revolt. The new president, Florvil Hyppolite, gave him an important military position in the north, but when President Tirésias Simon Sam resigned, he joined Anténor Firmin in a march on Port-au-Prince in an effort to seize control of the government.
The new president, however, was his old ally, Boisrond-Canal, who had returned him from exile some twenty years earlier. Canal defused the tension by appointing Alexis as his Minister of War, driving a wedge between him and Firmin. Troops loyal to Firmin were finally defeated in Port-au-Prince, leaving only two strongholds, St. Marc and Gonaïves, opposed to the new government of Canal and Alexis. Alexis took advantage of the situation by negotiating with the United States and declaring himself in support of American interests in the Caribbean. The U.S. responded by imposing a naval blockade on the two centers still loyal to Firmin, paving the way for Alexis to seize control of the government for himself.
He did this on December 21, 1902, by leading troops loyal to him into the country's Chamber of Deputies and forcing the legislators to declare him president. Alexis managed to hold on to power for the next six years, though his regime was plagued by rebellion, and the government he presided over was frequently accused of corruption. In January 1908, Alexis, already in his eighties, decided to have himself proclaimed president for life. This reunited the supporters of Firmin, who launched a new revolt against Alexis. While the revolt was crushed, it exacerbated the country's existing economic problems. A famine in the south that same year led to violent food riots and a new rebellion, this time from the south, led by General Antoine Simon. Ousted from power on December 2, Alexis went into exile in Jamaica, where he died in 1910.
Jean-Jacques Dessalines Michel Cincinnatus Leconte was President of Haiti from August 15, 1911 until his death on August 8, 1912. He was a great-grandson of Jean-Jacques Dessalines—a former African slave who briefly held power as Emperor of Haiti—and an uncle of Joseph Laroche, the only black passenger to perish on the Titanic.
Leconte, a lawyer by trade, had served as minister of the interior to President Pierre Nord Alexis. He was forced into exile in Jamaica after a 1908 revolt deposed Alexis and gave François C. Antoine Simon the presidency.
Returning from exile in 1911, Leconte gathered a large military force. After leading the revolution that ousted President Simon and brought Leconte back to Port-au-Prince in triumph on August 7, 1911, Leconte was unanimously elected president of Haiti by Congress on August 14, 1911, with a seven-year term. His salary was set at $24,000 a year.
Upon attaining the presidency he instituted a number of reforms: paving streets, increasing teacher pay, installing telephone lines, and decreasing the size of the army. Collier's Weekly argued in August 1912 that it was "generally admitted" that Leconte's administration was "the ablest and the cleanest government Hayti [sic] has had in forty years." Zora Neale Hurston, writing in the 1930s after extensive research in Haiti, pointed out that Leconte was "credited with beginning numerous reforms and generally taking positive steps."
Leconte pursued a discriminatory policy toward what was referred to as the "Syrian" population (most were actually Lebanese Christians), an already persecuted minority group which one historian described as constituting the "opening wedge of the American economic conquest of Haiti in the early 1900s." Prior to ascending to the presidency, he had promised to rid Haiti of its Syrian population. In 1912 Leconte's foreign minister released a statement stating that it was "necessary to protect nationals against the disloyal competition of the Easterner whose nationality is uncertain." A 1903 law (aimed specifically at Syrians) limiting the immigration levels and commercial activities of foreigners was revived, and the harassment of Syrians that had been prevalent in the first few years of the 1900s was resumed. The Leconte administration did, however, continue to process claims made by Syrians who had been persecuted by the government of Nord Alexis. When Leconte died suddenly in 1912, a number of Syrians celebrated his passing and were imprisoned as a result, while others were deported. His Syrian policy would be continued by his successor Tancrède Auguste.
Despite being elected to a seven year term, Leconte's time in office was short lived. On August 8, 1912 a violent explosion destroyed the National Palace, killing the president and several hundred soldiers. An Associated Press report at the time noted:
So great was the force of the explosion, that a number of small cannon, fragments of iron and shell were thrown long distances in all directions, and many of the palace attendants were killed. Every house in the city was shaken violently and the entire population, greatly alarmed, rushed into the street.
A 1912 account of the explosion in Political Science Quarterly reported that an "accidental ignition of ammunition stores caused the death of General Cincinnatus Leconte," while a 1927 article in the same journal deemed his death an "assassination." Oral histories circulating in Haiti—some of which were chronicled by Hurston in the 1930s in her book Tell My Horse: Voodoo and Life in Haiti and Jamaica—differed significantly from most written accounts. As Hurston explained, "The history books all say Cincinnatus Leconte died in the explosion that destroyed the palace, but the people do not tell it that way. Not one person, high or low, ever told me that Leconte was killed by the explosion. It is generally accepted that the destruction of the palace was to cover up the fact that the President was already dead by violence." According to Hurston there were "many reasons given for the alleged assassination," but the main actors in the supposed plot were men who "were ambitious and stood to gain political power...by the death of President Leconte."
Just several months before Leconte died, his nephew, Joseph Phillippe Lemercier Laroche, had been one of over 2,200 passengers on board the Titanic for its maiden voyage. While Laroche's wife and daughters survived the sinking of the ocean liner, Laroche himself perished, becoming the only man of African descent to lose his life in the disaster
Tancrede Auguste (March 16th, 1856-May 2nd, 1913) was the President of Haiti from August 8, 1912 until his death in office on May 2nd, 1913. He assumed the presidency the day that Cincinnatus Leconte died in office from a massive explosion that destroyed the presidential palace. Auguste served in this capacity for less than one year, as he became ill and died while traveling in the north of the country in early May 1913. It is widely believed by some sources that he was the victim of a poisoning. He was the grandfather of Haitian writer Jacques Roumain.
Il dut démissionner le 27 janvier 1914 sous la pression d'une insurrection. Suite à sa démission, un comité civilo-militaire a été chargé d'assurer l'ordre après son départ ; c'est le Comité de Salut Public mené par Edmond Polynice qui dura jusqu'au 8 février 1914 et l'élection de Oreste Zamor, un ancien commandant militaire du département de l'Artibonite, qui triompha facilement de ses rivaux du Nord et se fit élire président par l'Assemblée nationale.Timbre-poste haïtien de 1915 à l'effigie du président Oreste Zamor.
Oreste Zamor rejoint l'armée en 1888. Après ses affectations dans les garnisons de Saint-Michel-de-l'Attalaye, Limbé, Gonaïves et à Dessalines, Il devient chef d'une armée de paysans révoltés (Cacos) avec son frère Charles Zamor.
Douze jours après la démission de Michel Oreste, 27 Janvier 1914, Oreste Zamor était le 8 Février 1914 élu pour un mandat de sept ans comme président d'Haïti. Son frère Charles Zamor devint ministre de l'Intérieur du cabinet ministériel.
Malheureusement pour les frères Zamor les banques ne leur accordèrent que peu de crédit et ils ils ne disposèrent pas des fonds nécessaires pour payer les soldats. Oreste Zamor dut faire face à la contestation de la part de son ancien allié et maintenant rival Joseph Davilmar Théodore et du révolutionnaire Rosalvo Bobo contre son gouvernement. Il accepta une protection des États-Unis, de retour en Octobre 1914, en acceptant un protectorat. Mais face à la révolte populaire, ils durent s'enfuir.
Charles Zamor s'enfuit d'abord à l'ambassade de la République dominicaine, puis dans celle de la France, tandis que Oreste Zamor se réfugiait sous la protection d'un navire marchand. Toutefois, il fut fait prisonnier par les insurgés et neuf mois plus tard au pénitencier national de Port-au-Prince, il fut assassiné.
Joseph Davilmar Théodore (1847 – 1917) was President of Haïti from November 7, 1914 to February 22, 1915. Born in the town of Ennery in the northern half of the country, he began his career in the military, and organized the cacao farmers of the north in the revolt against President Oreste Zamor. His inability to pay the farmers as he had promised for participating in the rebellion soon led to his resignation in favor of J. Vilbrun Guillaume Sam.
Sam was the commander of Haiti's Northern Division when he led the revolt that brought President Cincinnatus Leconte to power. He later headed the revolt that toppled President Oreste Zamor. Sam was proclaimed president when his predecessor, Joseph Davilmar Théodore, was forced to resign on February 25, 1915, when he was unable to pay the militiamen (called "Cacos") who had helped him overthrow Zamor.
As the fifth president in five turbulent years, Sam was forced to contend with a revolt against his own regime, led by Dr. Rosalvo Bobo, who opposed the government's expanded commercial and strategic ties with the United States. Fearing that he would share the same fate as his predecessors, Sam acted harshly against his political opponents, particularly the better educated and wealthier mulatto population. The epitome of his repressive measures came on July 27, 1915, when he ordered the execution of 167 political prisoners, including former president Zamor, who was being held in a Port-au-Prince jail. This infuriated the population, which rose up against Sam's government as soon as news of the executions reached them.
Sam fled to the French embassy, where he received asylum. After burying their children and still dressed in black frocks, however, the rebels' mulatto leaders broke into the embassy and finally found Sam hiding in a toilet. They beat him to death and threw his limp body over the embassy's iron fence to the waiting populace, who then ripped his cadaver to pieces and paraded the parts through the capital's neighborhoods. For the next two weeks, the country was in chaos.
News of the murder soon reached the American Navy ships anchored in the city's harbor, and Washington D.C.. President Woodrow Wilson, who was wary about the turn of events in Haïti, and especially the possibility that Bobo would take power, ordered American troops to seize the capital, claiming that the unrest might precipitate a German invasion of the country. They landed the next day, on July 28, and continued to occupy the country for nineteen years, until August 1934.
From: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.